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Gardening

Citrus – Citrus – Citrus – Orchard -Citrus .

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Citrus fruits, plants from the Citrus group, belong to the Rutaceae family, which includes more than 25 cultivated species, mostly of Asian origin. These are evergreen woody plants, the height of which can vary considerably depending on the species and type of crop, with a minimum of around 1 m for ornamental plants such as Citrus Mitis or Calamandino and a maximum of over 9 m for crops such as Lemon, Cedar or Orange. The leaves are one of the first reasons for the ornamental qualities of this family as they are very bright and rich in aromatic oily substances. They stay on the plant for more than 2 years and are generally elliptical oval in shape. The color of the leaves varies from dark green in the older ones to yellowish-green in the young leaves placed on the top of the shoots, the flowers are mostly white with 5 petals, they are another motif of the ornament, as they occur at different times of the year (re-flowering), in ornamental species, they are gathered in showy clusters and they are very fragrant (zagare). The fruits, which are botanically referred to as a particular type of berry called hesperidium, have a rough yellow to red rind with a spongy white area on the underside, known as an albedo, surrounding the flesh that is juicy and can also be of various colors, including pink. Fruit production is undoubtedly the main reason for their cultivation and on this basis we can distinguish the main groups of varieties from the Citrus genus: direct feeding or extraction of juices: oranges, lemons, mandarins and grapefruits candied fruits such as cedar and chinotto extraction of perfume or essence, e.g. bergamot Ornamental and edible fruits: kumquats, fortunella, calamondino
citrus fruits

kumquats Citrus fruit is widely grown as an important agricultural resource in the most suitable areas, namely temperate and maritime climates or limited to certain areas of the Garda. Due to their numerous ornamental qualities, they spread at an amateur level in vegetable gardens with other fruit trees or in real gardens, up to particularly miniaturized selections, even in city apartments.

Their cultivation for ornamental purposes poses no major problems if it is carried out in appropriate climatic zones, while in temperate-cold zones it is grown only in a favorable microclimate or better, by growing plants in pots with the possibility of transferring plants from the garden to heated areas or protected. in the winter.

citrus As mentioned, the first condition for the successful cultivation of citrus fruit in the soil is the temperature, which in winter must not fall below 0 ° C, taking into account that the optimal for vegetation and production is a minimum of 7 ° winter. and a maximum of 28 ° in summer.

In the context of citrus, there are also different resistances to lowering the temperature, directly related to the species, the most sensitive are cedars and lemons, while bitter oranges and kumquats are more resistant to cold. The key factors for a successful harvest are the soil, which must be light, loose, very fertile, and good water availability, but which must drain quickly into the soil without stagnating. Another factor to consider is windiness, which is especially damaging to the whole Citrus genus as it can destroy newly formed flowers and fruits, and even detach leaves. As for lighting, good exposure is optimal, which is only obtained by placing the plants well. and very important for cultivation in pots, excellent lighting in winter, under the threat of complete leaf fall. In short, optimal cultivation in moderate climatic zones, with mild winter climate, in a position sheltered from the wind and sunny. In areas with severe winters, it is necessary to shelter citrus plants in a cold greenhouse.

lemons Fertilization of the genus Citrus is an indispensable practice; must be made of macronutrient balanced fertilizers, rich in micronutrients such as manganese and zinc, necessary for the normal physiological activity of the plant.

The optimal period of fertilization coincides with the vegetative resumption, which occurs at the end of winter, well before flowering begins, and then continues at regular intervals of 8-10 days. without ever interrupting fertilization, precisely because the plant is always in a vegetative or productive activity, as is the case with lemons, oranges and mandarins. Citrus fruits provide significant benefits throughout the growth period with frequent foliar fertilization to address acute deficiencies or transient deterioration or blockage of absorption from the soil due to excessive temperatures, to avoid the typical yellowing of leaves due to ferric chlorosis, which often affects citrus fruits during the vegetative regeneration phase, or very often if the soil type is calcareous, different ways of administering iron-based products are important chelated by the roots.

citrus fruits Citrus fruits face many adversities.

Environmental pathologies: these are usually deficiencies, including iron chlorosis (which has already been dealt with during fertilization) manifests itself at different levels depending on the severity. Leaves turn yellow gradually from the vegetative tips to the base of the plant. In critical cases, plants fail to bloom or bloom poorly or lose fruit prematurely. Then the leaves dry at the edges and fall until the plant is completely rid of the leaves. Along with this deficiency, there are others that give rise to a variety of symptoms including: yellowing of the leaves at the base, leaf twisting, fading and deformation, or spot and curl, followed by poor flowering and fruiting and poor fruit quality (aromas, sugars, color and These causes can be controlled in advance with appropriate fertilizers, such as those specific to citrus, while in other situations plants are recoverable at the first symptom level through special interventions with added micronutrients Other ‘environmental’ causes are: – lack of light, which leads to poor flowering and, consequently, little or no fruiting, as well as minimal plant growth; therefore it is advisable to place citrus fruits in a very bright place, with at least 4-6 hours of sunshine a day – pollution: these plants do not develop well in places highly exposed to pollution, therefore it is not recommended to use them in flower beds, communication island, and in every in small buildings in areas with heavy car traffic – thermal loads in winter and summer in areas with very cold winters, it is recommended to keep citrus plants in a protected place, at least until April or May, to avoid exposure to temperatures well below freezing for a long time; in summer, it may be necessary to slightly shade the specimens grown in pots during the hottest hours of the day – excess salinity in the water and soil, which can weaken the plant in general. In such cases, together with prevention and removal. Due to predisposition, the timely use of “energy” products is recommended to provide the plant with important assistance in quickly restoring vegetative fitness after stress and promoting its harmonious development.

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