When we talk about borders for flower beds, we refer to flower plantations or small shrubs whose main purpose is to decorate and trim the perimeter of one or more areas of a garden. These are plantations of fine shape whose development runs in length around fountains, pools and flower beds, but in general around any reality that is intended to delimit or highlight. Distinguished by a common basic structure, they can be interspersed with concrete statues, false columns, dry stone walls or lampposts for lighting.
Specifically, the Italian borders are made in a classic way, they are wide and low enough to be able to underline the line of the design: in general, they involve the combination of no more than three different species of flowers or leaves. The edges of the medium cushions, on the other hand, reach up to a foot in height, and the use of petunia, Iberian, feathery, nemesia, gazania, carnation, arabis, calendula, saxifrage and nasturtium is generally seen. The edges of the dwarf cushion are quite different, as the name suggests they do not exceed six inches in height. Made, in turn, with foliage or small plants with flowers of different colors, they must be maintained by constant pruning, in order to respect the small size, also bearing in mind that some specimens could cancel out others. For this type of border for flower beds, it is advisable to use species such as begonietta, lily of the valley, alyssus, aubrezia, dwarf marigold, wild thyme, silene, daisy, pansies, dwarf zinnia, lobelia and ageratum. On the other hand, the borders with a medium rectangular profile are more square, obtained with bushes and flowers whose bearing is quite slender. The plants, in this case, are especially planted unevenly, so that the terminal part is decidedly less compact than the underlying part. What plants are used? Korean chrysanthemum, rudbechia, bellflower, karyospis, splendid sage, snapdragon, calendula, giozia, gaillardia, lantana, yarrow, coleus, geraneo, perilla, dwarf dalietta, dwarf aster, and poliantha rose. The rectangular high-profile edges, instead, resort to species such as dahlia, delphinium, lupine, perennial sunflower, rose bush, columbine, iris, solidago and daisy: species characterized by corollas supported by rather thin stems, but in the close they give life to a not very homogeneous mass. Very particular are the high-profile triangular edges, which use anemone japonica, altea, tritoma, giant snapdragon, loosestrife, pyramidal bell, astilbe, celosia. These are plants and flowers with abundant vegetation in the lower part, in such a way that they create a triangular shape, with the base in the lower part, and that a single flower or a single plant acts as a cup. The last type of border for flower beds is the high profile border, prized for its particularly pleasing aesthetic impact. Often used at the beginning of a path as a special welcome, or at the corners of a square flowerbed to make room for plants indoors, it requires very careful planting, keeping specimens close to each other. Taking into account that a height progression will have to emerge over time, the species to be used are those indicated respectively for tall, medium and dwarf edges.
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A very important aspect, however, is that which refers to the color combinations: to create a homogeneous edge and harmoniously fit into the context, it is preferable to respect some combinations. Then it is okay to combine lilac and pink; purple and yellow; bright blue and red; yellow, red and blue; orange and blue; orange and light blue. White, on the other hand, goes with any shade. In accordance with these aesthetic canons, however, it would be better to avoid combinations between green, white and red, because the reference to the Italian flag, if not necessary, could seem cloying. It should also be taken into account that violet has the intrinsic peculiarity of stealing the brightness, somehow making the chromatic tones of the other flowers pale. A border with a single color, perhaps, can be advisable so as not to risk unpleasant combinations. It is clear that, of course, experience also plays an important role. It is good to bear in mind, in any case, that many times a multicolored border is embellished with green leaves, which serve to harmonize and balance different tones, softening the excessively strong ones and enlivening the less bright ones.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the planting of borders for flower beds can be carried out with a hoe, taking care to remove roots and old stones, and providing for the fertilization of the soil with powdered compost. Clearly, the plantation must be particularly dense, to avoid the appearance of holes, which would be decidedly unpleasant from an aesthetic point of view.