Gardening

Lampone – Rubus idaeus – Rubus idaeus – Frutteto

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Sarmentose perennial shrub native of central and northern Europe, constituted by a stump of small dimensions, from which grow long shoots with biennial development, covered by a thin down, sometimes thorny, arched and flexible, that grow up to 150-200 cm of height. In springtime it produces small pinkish-white flowers, gathered in pyramidal inflorescences; some varieties produce fruits in the summertime, on the branches of one year; other varieties produce fruits in springtime on the branches of one year and at the end of summertime on new suckers. Raspberry fruits are sweet and juicy, they are small drupes attached one to each other, around the receptacle, from which they are easily detached; in autumn branches that have fruited during the previous summer are pruned. Raspberries are used to make jams and liquors, leaves are also used in herbal medicine.

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Appartiene alla stessa famiglia del melo e del pero e comprende diverse specie diffuse praticamente in tutto il mondo. Stiamo parlando del lampone, specie a portamento cespuglioso a cui dedichiamo una dettagliata scheda di coltivazione. La pianta, che compare spontaneamente in alcune zone boscose, si presta anche ad essere coltivata sia in giardino che su larga scala. Le tecniche e i metodi di coltivazione variano in base alla variet scelta.

Lampone – Rubus idaeus – Rubus idaeus – Frutteto

Place in a sunny or semi-shady place; they prefer cool places, possibly with the lower part of the plant away from direct sun rays. Raspberries are not afraid of cold and tend to develop widely during the years.

Raspberry belongs to the boundless family of Rosaceae and to the genus Rubus. It includes many species, but the most known and cultivated one is mainly the European one, that is Rubus idaeus L, commonly known as European raspberry. The plant, native to Europe and Asia Minor, has a bushy aspect and also includes other varieties mainly spread overseas and not much cultivated in Europe. Thanks to crossings among the different varieties of raspberry, it has been possible to obtain cultivars that resist to any climatic condition and soil and to the most common parasites and diseases. The plant has about three or five small deciduous leaves, oval, of dark green color, made of a serrated margin and with fruits which, according to the variety, can have a color ranging from red, to purple and black. The vegetative cycle of raspberry is biennial and continuous. The European raspberry, in particular, is a bushy plant composed by many biennial shoots which continuously expand and renew themselves. On the other hand, the roots of the plant are superficial and perennial, formed by stubby and rhizomatous main roots, and fasciculated secondary roots. The shoots of the year are called suckers, the shoots of two years are instead called fruiting shoots. These vegetative parts, light green in color, can be sometimes covered with small thorns and can reach a length of two meters. If they develop from buds placed along the roots, they are also called root suckers, if they appear at the base of the shoots and in correspondence of the collar, they are called collar suckers.

Generally, they are satisfied with rains, although it is advisable to water them in the summertime, before harvesting the fruits, in order to prevent them from excessively drying, especially in case of prolonged periods of drought.

Lampone raspberries

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Raspberries love soft soils, rich in organic matter and very well drained. They are planted in autumn, after having enriched the soil with well mature manure; after the planting the stems are cut at about 20-30 cm of height from the ground. In autumn we give organic or slow release fertilizer; every 8-10 years it is advisable to move the stumps of lampne, in order to always obtain a good fructification.

It is usually done by division of the tufts, in fact the young basal shoots root easily once separated from the mother plant.

Generally raspberries do not easily get sick, even if the fruits attract many insects and animals that eat them.

Lampone – Rubus idaeus – Rubus idaeus – Frutteto

Raspberry flowers, white in color, are gathered in small racemose inflorescences. The development of the same takes place in mid-May with the appearance of apical flowers and then of axillary ones which open in correspondence of basal leaves. Generally, the flowering of raspberry goes on for about one month, therefore until half June. Fruits, instead, called sorosis, are composed by a group of drupes which, united together, form the well known blackberry, also known as forest fruit. The shape of the blackberry can be round or elongated and conical, while the color varies from pale pink, to ruby, up to deep red and almost purple.

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There are many varieties of raspberry and it would be impossible to list them all. Among the most known ones, we can mention Rubus strigosus, or wild raspberry, native to the United States, with smaller and darker shoots and red fruits similar to the European raspberry. It seems there is no difference between the two species and both are included in the common name red raspberry. Besides the red raspberry, there is also the black raspberry, with fruits having a purplish color so intense to seem black. The botanical name of this second variety, also originating from the United States of America, is Rubus occidentalis. Also American is the purple raspberry, botanically known as Rubus neglectus. The different varieties of raspberry are also classified according to the time of year and the type of fructification. In this sense, there are the uniforms, which bear fruit only once a year, and the re-flowering raspberries, which bear fruit twice a year. The cycle of these plants is always biennial, but in the uniforms, during the first year the formation of suckers takes place and in the second, that of the fruits; in the bikers, instead, suckers and fruits appear at the same time both in the first and in the second year.
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Raspberry prefers fresh soils, well-drained, rich in humus, and with a slightly acid pH not exceeding 6.5. The plant does not tolerate, instead, clayey, hard, compact, and too humid soils. These soils, in fact, can cause root failure and fungal diseases that can lead to the death of the whole plant. Soils rich in lime are also to be avoided, because, in the most sensitive varieties, they can cause chlorosis, that is leaf yellowing caused by the lack of iron absorption by roots. Raspberry cultivated in pots should be planted in a new container every eight or ten years, in order to always guarantee a good fructification of the plant.

Raspberry fears high temperatures as well as intense and prolonged cold. The ideal location for the plant is in a partially shaded place where it can receive sun rays during the coolest hours of the day. Avoid, instead, hot and dry places. Raspberry roots can also be damaged by cold wind. This climatic condition often leads to the burning of roots or to their damage. The roots themselves can burn due to sudden drops in spring temperatures. Temperature changes can also damage the suckers that develop from the soil. For this reason, soils in valley bottom areas, where accumulations of cold air are more likely to occur, should be avoided.

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raspberry

Raspberry prefers fresh soils, well-drained, rich in humus, and with a slightly acid pH not exceeding 6.5. The plant does not tolerate, instead, clayey, hard, compact, and too humid soils. These soils, in fact, can cause root failure and fungal diseases that can lead to the death of the whole plant. Soils rich in lime are also to be avoided, because, in the most sensitive varieties, they can cause chlorosis, that is leaf yellowing caused by the lack of iron absorption by roots. Raspberry cultivated in pots should be planted in a new container every eight or ten years, in order to always guarantee a good fructification of the plant.

Raspberry fears high temperatures as well as intense and prolonged cold. The ideal location for the plant is in a partially shaded place where it can receive sun rays during the coolest hours of the day. Avoid, instead, hot and dry places. Raspberry roots can also be damaged by cold wind. This climatic condition often leads to the burning of roots or to their damage. The roots themselves can burn due to sudden drops in spring temperatures. Temperature changes can also damage the suckers that develop from the soil. For this reason, soils in valley bottom areas, where accumulations of cold air are more likely to occur, should be avoided.

raspberry

The raspberry reproduces by pollination, that is by the intervention of bees, or by division of the suckers taken from the mother plant. The planting of the plant, as already said, can be done in the open fields and in the pot. Seedlings with suckers already rooted should be planted during the vegetative rest, that is in autumn. In regions with particularly rigid climates, it is better to plant them in spring and in a fresh and humid place. Potted plants should be planted within the middle of May, placing the containers in a place sheltered from wind and draughts. The operations of planting raspberries are pretty simple because they only provide for the insertion of the soil inside the holes.

Raspberry should be irrigated immediately after planting, at the vegetative restart, during flowering, and during the reddening of fruits. In these phases and above all during fruit swelling, irrigations must be abundant. After the harvest, and especially in autumn, irrigations must be progressively reduced, in order to favour the maturation of the stem and the development of new roots. The quantity of water to be distributed varies according to climate and type of soil. In shallow soils it will be necessary to irrigate frequently with little water, in medium soils, it will be necessary to distribute more water, but spaced out between applications. Water can be distributed through sprinklers that water the foliage, or through the drip system. In light soils and in cool, windy climates, it is best to water with the sprinkler system. Always avoid water excesses and stagnations, which can cause fungal diseases and rottenness of fruits.

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Raspberry is a plant which, during its development, bears a remarkable expenditure of energy. The greatest effort of the plant is during the development of suckers and fruits. Fertilization includes, therefore, different interventions, both during planting and during production and harvesting. Before planting it is necessary to fertilize the soil, which must be enriched with cow manure or, in absence of the same, with mineral fertilizers. These last ones must be administered also during the phases of growth and production and along a period of time that goes from the vegetative resumption to the beginning of harvesting, in the uniforms, and at half harvesting for the re-flowering varieties. Every two years the soil should also be enriched with mature and decomposed manure. It is necessary to pay attention that the same manure is easily absorbed by the ground in order not to constitute an obstacle to the exit of the basal shoots. If you do not want to do too many fractionated mineral fertilization, you can choose a slow-release fertilizer for fruit plants, to be administered every three or four months.

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