The most important pruning of the orchard is in winter, when the risk of frost is minimal and night temperatures are not very rigid; not all fruit plants require pruning, cherry has a tendency to self-renew branches that bear fruit year by year, and it does not like cuts in wood that can cause rubbery and fungal diseases, for this reason, if we have a cherry in the garden, we avoid pruning unless they have branches damaged by frost or bad weather, which must be removed.
Even apricots and figs do not like pruning, especially drastic pruning, so we only prune young trees to give them a more open crown and to ensure that the sun reaches all the branches. pear, apple, and plum trees pruning is done at the end of winter, which will balance the amount of fruit and leaves produced; it is important to promote the development of an open crown after implantation, without intertwining branches, without a dominant apex; pruning should be done in such a way as to favor flowering, but let’s not forget that in an orchard it is advisable that all tree branches be easily accessible to pick the fruit; these trees must not have thin branches that can be broken by bad weather or a very heavy harvest. As with other plants in the garden, we remove crossed branches or branches that develop in parallel or that have been damaged in the previous season.
As we said before, these plants do not like excessive pruning, in the case of cherries they are afraid of any pruning; therefore, at the end of winter, we will intervene, removing branches damaged by frost or wind, and nothing else; when it comes to apricot, however, in the first years of plant life, we try to ensure that it develops with a wide and low crown.
Pear and apple trees are among the fruit plants that benefit most from pruning, poorly pruned or poorly pruned plants may bear little fruit or, in some cases, very few fruits ripen. ; crown fingerprint supported on larger and well-woody branches; these branches develop small, short and stocky twigs with many buds which usually appear as flower buds, these twigs are called darts and on the most of the harvest develops; among the arrows, we notice slightly longer branches, called lambdas, they also have mostly buds that will lead to flowers and fruits; other branches are slightly longer, called brindle, are very slender and contain both wood buds and flower buds. When trimming the pomace, we will shorten by about a third all the branches that make up the fingerprint of the crown, avoid touching all the arrows and lambda and shorten some of the toasts. If darts are present in very small numbers, we will also avoid trimming the brindilla.
Peaches and Japanese plums should be pruned by shortening almost all branches and removing those that develop inside the leaves, making them excessively dense and thick; in the case of peach trees, it is good to favor the development of very thick and strong branches, as the fruits are quite significant and can break thin and weak branches.
On the other hand, the European plum must simply be cleaned of broken or damaged branches and the crossed branches should be trimmed without exceeding the amount of wood removed. branches that will support rather large and heavy fruits; pruning in the following years, with a small size, will remove or shorten only the thinnest branches of the fruit. These trees tend to form a beautiful rounded crown that will be slightly widened and thinned out so that all branches can receive sunlight.
Now that we have reviewed the general information on pruning and how to carry out this important intervention in the cultivation of fruit crops, we still need an important chapter to get a complete overview of this cultivation intervention. In fact, the parenthesis is missing, which has some meaning with respect to the tools used for trimming, how to cut, and maintenance of the cutting tools.
So let’s start by looking at the types of tools needed to trim plants. The best tools you can use are cutting tools such as scissors, scissors, secateurs, and secateurs. All of these tools actually cut the branches clearly and precisely, which is very positive as the pruning cuts need to be as clear and precise as possible avoiding jagged and serrated cuts. For example, cuts with a hacksaw and chainsaw injure the bark of plants by opening it at several points at the entrance of fungi and bacteria, but when pruning plants, always look for a clean, precise cut profile that opens up as little space as possible to the outside environment. The more surfaces open up, the greater the chance that bacteria and fungi will get into the plant, and therefore the more likely our plants will be sick.