Plants in nature develop luxuriantly, often luxuriantly, and pruning, especially with fruit plants, is a drastic intervention. However, a necessary evil, forcing a human being technically oriented towards obtaining better quantitative and qualitative production. Fruit plants, in particular, were among the first managed by man precisely so that they could produce according to his nutritional needs. The purpose of modern fruit tree pruning is to ensure that they can produce high-quality products in the best and most rational way. For this purpose, interventions should be made to give the trees the appropriate shape and properly condition the crown.
Even plants such as humans and animals need sleep, and the chill of winter, the so-called “need to cool” plants, allows for a well-deserved rest after fruiting as leaves fall. It is the time, usually from January to March, for pruning fruit trees.
There are different types of pruning, but in the case of fruit crops, we distinguish in particular “farm pruning” and “production” pruning, even if in modern fruit growing techniques the two types of pruning are increasingly overlapping and cannot be clearly separated. Quite vigorous breeding pruning is typical for young plants and is aimed at obtaining plant formation, its skeletal scaffolding, and structure as soon as possible, which may be a vase, palmette, cone, sapling, etc. On adult plants, an attempt is made to eliminate dry, thin, weak, old and damaged branches from weather conditions and diseases, as well as continue thinning of the crown in search of the right balance between vegetation and fruiting branches, also adapting the plant to mechanized harvesting.
But let’s get into the details, starting with the distinction between different species of fruit plants and the most appropriate techniques for appropriate and effective pruning, even with a few important principles that may be useful even to the less experienced in the industry.
– First of all, for the importance and dissemination, is the grapevine that produces table grapes. It is subject to the absolute most drastic pruning since last year’s shoots that have already produced the grapes are eliminated to facilitate the emission of new shoots necessary for future production. production cutting needs. In these three cases, it is enough to eliminate, by cutting them with garden scissors or a hacksaw, dry or diseased branches by removing them from the base, i.e. from the place where the branch leaves the other main one. It is important that shearing is carried out without creating lacerations that could later infect the plant and cause its degradation – Peaches, almonds, plums, and pears, on the other hand, have greater needs. In fact, the intervention must be more vigorous in the sense that many more cuts must be made to eliminate the twigs and shorten the canopy part, since they are plants much more vigorous than previously analyzed. Success in these plants depends on knowing them and using the right equipment. Scissors in particular must always be sharp, as well as hacksaws or knives. The latter are sometimes used in agriculture to finish cuts made with hacksaws or other similar tools – Citrus is another particularly common type of fruit tree. This type includes lemons, oranges, mandarins, clementines, cedars, grapefruits, and more. They are one of the most cultivated fruit trees, especially in southern Italy, where they find the best environmental conditions for growing and production. Unlike the previous ones, citrus fruits are trees with evergreen leaves, which should be cut in a specific period of the year, most often in May. The correct technique for these trees is to eliminate twigs, scientifically called “suckers”, that branch off the trunk and main branches of the plant without overdoing the elimination of large branches.
The following additional rules and tips apply to all fruit trees that are important to know and follow a well-made, effective, and at the same time respectful to the plant’s needs.
– Remember to always perform the activities in a timely manner for the species affected: January-March for most fruit trees, May for citrus fruits – Wear appropriate clothing and gloves. Even simple pruning at home can cause cuts or itchy hands, also due to contact with resins that can be released by plants when branches are cut. Remember that pruning tools must be carefully selected. Efficient and well-sharpened scissors and saws allow you not to repeat cutting operations too many times, avoiding rage on the plant or worse, causing damage that can be the basis of infection and spoilage – Do not use the same tools with which the diseased plant was previously trimmed to avoid spreading disease spreads to healthy plants. – In the case of cuts on large branches, it is necessary to disinfect the pieces with a special product, the so-called “Bordeaux mixture”, 1% copper sulfate solution and calcium hydrate, available from stores specializing in agricultural products. The mash should be applied by spraying or brushing the cut wound. The same effect is achieved when using an alternative ferrous sulfate solution. – It is especially useful for citrus fruit pruning greenery by eliminating young shoots from the trunk or large branches, especially after irrigation, to prevent them from turning into shoots detrimental to the plant’s vegetative-productive balance.
The plant is essential to the success of the orchard. In fact, you should choose:
1) The soil is fertile, well exposed, and of medium texture, ie Neither too loamy, too sandy, with good organic content, etc. 2) Variety (ie Variety) of each species planted. It is appreciated and desired by the market when the cultivation is of an industrial nature, freely chosen in the case of a family orchard. 3) The most appropriate fertilization also in terms of soil fertility and yields. 4) The most appropriate treatment of crops with the use of environmentally friendly plant protection products to obtain ecological products that are in great demand today. Hooping, as we understand it, is one of the most important cultivation activities. Therefore, it should be done technically and rationally, taking into account the plant and the conditions in which it lives, develops, and produces.