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Gardening

Pruning roses – Gardening techniques – Pruning roses

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All roses require regular and proper pruning. Pruning is, in fact, the most important operation for the future life of these plants, as well as for flowering. When well done, it corrects its shape, stimulating vegetation and significantly influencing flowering, both in distribution and volume. The various species require a different intervention, while the best period (except for climbers) is the period of 2 – 3 weeks before the vegetative restart, that is, from January 15 to 20 to March 15 to 20, depending on latitude, exposure, and altitude. In any case, it is never necessary to prune during the months of intense cold pruning roses It is good practice to check that the work tools are in good condition: in particular, the scissors must be sharp and clean. It should also always be kept in mind that most roses produce flowers on the branches of the year. For this reason, if you prune at the wrong time, you run the risk of compromising the flowering of the season. There are also some roses that bloom on the branches of the previous year (for example, generally all climbing roses and some bush roses). These roses will need to be pruned right after flowering. Most of the roses are grafted. In fact, by using a vigorous pattern, a better-developed root system is obtained. During the growth of the plant, it often happens that suckers form from the roots (recognizable by the different foliage). These branches also produce flowers, but they often have little ornamental value and for this reason, must be cut back. The cut should be clean and scraping the tip of the root from which the branch emerges. If the sucker grows away from the plant, it is not enough to cut it to the ground, but you will have to climb to the root.
prune roses

flowersYoung plants

All roses planted in winter should be pruned in early spring. Roses planted in spring, on the other hand, are pruned when planted (see fig. 1). All the damaged branches and those that grow inward are cut to form a kind of bowl (see fig. 2). Always prune the buds outwards. There are about 3-4 yolks left. Adult plantsPoorly developed or underdeveloped rose bushes should be pruned as much as possible to strengthen them. With light pruning, in fact, weak branches tend to stretch further, becoming even weaker. In contrast, vigorous ones are moderately pruned, so that they can ventilate their exuberance in vegetation and flowering. Excessive pruning of these branches would, in fact, grow many suckers that would remove the sap from the branches intended for flowering. Then remove any suckers that have developed over the winter. Cut off all dry or damaged branches and old ones. As a general rule, three to four shoots should be left on the weakest branches and five to six shoots on the strongest branches. Always prune the buds outwards.

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bushYoung and adult plants

the young roses can be pruned like rose bushes. However, take into account the characteristics of the varieties grown. Young plant climbing roses should be pruned by leaving the strongest branches (five or six buds left) and cutting off the weaker branches. Adult plants already mentioned, they generally need to be pruned in summer, after flowering. Old branches that have flowered more than once are cut off. One-year branches should be shortened to two or three buds. In either case, cut off all secondary branches. Remove faded flowers and vegetation that grew from the roots of the grafted plant. Young plants roses planted in winter should be pruned in early spring. Roses planted in spring, on the other hand, are pruned when planted, the first year after transplanting all the branches will be cut from three to five buds depending on their strength. Adult plants eliminate all suckers that have developed over the winter. Cut off all dry and damaged branches. As a general rule of thumb, five to six gems should be left. Always prune the buds outwards.

How to make the cutA very important aspect of pruning roses is the mode in which the cut is made. In addition to variable parameters such as the season, the type of pruning carried out, and the age of the roses, there are aspects of pruning roses that are fixed and that must always be taken into account.

These are fine details but are very important for the success of pruning interventions and to avoid the appearance of molds and fungi after pruning operations. One of the first precautions to take is related to the way of making the cut or the angle and the slope to maintain in the cut. The pruning cut of the roses should be diagonal and oblique with respect to the ground. In fact, this device allows rainwater that falls on freshly pruned roses to slide off. It is very important that the water runs off the cut surface and that it does not stagnate, otherwise it could lead to mold, rot, and fungus ingress. The angle of the cut should be oblique but not exaggerated and you should try to cut at an angle of about 45 °. Another aspect to always keep in mind is the position of the gems with respect to the cut. In fact, the cut should be made not too far or too close to the gem, so to speak in the middle.

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